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Beer potomania syndrome (Hyponatremia)

Beer potomania is a syndrome of binge drinking, poor nutritional intake, and profound hyponatremia. Etiology Hyponatremia is due to a large consumption of beer (which has...

Diabetic Control in Surgical Patients

Objectives Avoid excess morbidity and mortality Prevent Hypo, hyperglycemia, increased protein catabolism and undue electrolyte imbalance. Aim for a blood sugar around 200mg/dl i.e: (7 to 11 mmol/L) More...

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary thrombo-embolism is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the hospitalized patients.  A vast majority of clinically significant pulmonary emboli (PE)...

Acute intestinal obstruction

Primary Survey: Short History Pain (site, character, duration, severity), vomiting, distention, absolute constipation. Look for features of strangulation obstruction Physical Examination: Check heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate,...

Intravenous access setting and maintainance

Cannulation of the venous system may be required: For the administration of drugs. For the intravenous infusion of fluids. For transfusion of blood products. For parenteral feeding when...

Diabetic foot and its management

Diabetes mellitus is one of those metabolic disorders that impedes normal steps of wound healing process. Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the major...

Protocols for Blood Transfusion

Transfusion Triggers/ Indications: Severe blood loss > 1.5 liters in patient with normal Hemoglobin. Severe burns > 50% BSA If Hemoglobin level is < 8mg /dl (In...

Acute urinary retention and its management

Acute Urinary Retention Acute urinary retention is sudden inability to pass urine.  It is a painful condition. Causes: a)  Mechanical Urinary Bladder:- Stones, tumors and stricture of the...

Peripheral Vascular Trauma

Types of Injuries Penetrating Trauma Mechanasim Stab Wound Low velocity bullet wounds Blunt Trauma Mechanasim Motor vehicle accidents Falls from Heights These injuries may or may not be associated with bony fractures...

Shock and its management

It is a clinical state characterized by hypotension, tachycardia, cold & clammy extremities and excessive sweating due to decreased perfusion at the cellular level. ...

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