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Plight of emergency medicine in Pakistan

Emergency healthcare in Pakistan has faced neglect to the point where the total number of trained emergency specialists could manage to reach only about 40 while...

Beer potomania syndrome (Hyponatremia)

Beer potomania is a syndrome of binge drinking, poor nutritional intake, and profound hyponatremia. Etiology Hyponatremia is due to a large consumption of beer (which has...

Hyperglycemia and Diabetic Ketoacidosis

(Diabetic Ketoacidosis) DKA Diabetic Ketoacidosis occurs as a result of severe insulin insufficiency and an excess of counter-regulatory hormones (e.g glucagon).  It usually presents itself...

Acute pancreatitis

Inflammatory process ranges from mild oedema to necrosis of pancreas & peripancreatic tissues.  Clinically it presents as abrupt onset of epigastric pain, frequently with...

Snake Bites and their emergency treatment

  Snake venom contains many polypeptides including phospholipase, hyaluronidase and adenosine triphosphates. Clinical Manifestation: Determine whether bites are caused by a venomous or a non-venomous snake. Venomous...