Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a set of intestinal illnesses characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract.

The digestive system is made up of the following parts:

  1. mouth
  2. esophagus
  3. stomach
  4. the small intestine
  5. the large intestine

It is in responsible of:

breaking down food, extracting nutrients, and eliminating any useless or waste materials
IBD is a catch-all name for a variety of disorders. The two most prevalent are as follows:
Colitis ulcerative (UC). The large intestine is inflamed, but solely in the digestive tract. It can cause additional non-digestive problems.

Crohn’s disease.  Any region of the digestive system might become inflamed as a result of this. However, it mostly affects the small intestine’s tail end.


IBD’s actual aetiology is uncertain. However, a number of variables might raise your chances of having UC or Crohn’s disease.

Genetics and family history

People who have a parent, sibling, or kid who has IBD are significantly more likely to have it themselves. This is why, according to a 2016 research, doctors believe IBD has a hereditary component.

The immune system

An immunological response might be triggered by a bacterial or viral infection of the digestive system. As the body attempts to mount an immunological reaction against the invaders, the digestive system becomes inflamed. When an infection is removed, the inflammation subsides in a healthy immunological response. However, digestive system inflammation can develop in persons with IBD even when there is no infection. Instead, the immune system assaults the body’s own cells. This is referred to as an autoimmune reaction


One of the major risk factors for getting Crohn’s disease is smoking. Smoking also worsens the pain and other symptoms of Crohn’s disease. It also raises the possibility of problems. UC, on the other hand, predominantly affects nonsmokers and ex-smokers.


IBD occurs in all populations. However, some ethnic groups, such as white individuals and Ashkenazi Jews, have a higher chance of getting the illness, according to study.

Environmental considerations

According to research Trusted Source released in 2019, people who reside in cities and industrialised nations are at a higher risk of acquiring IBD.


IBD affects both men and women equally. According to a 2018 study, UC is more prevalent in males over the age of 45 than in women in the same age range.


To diagnose IBD, your doctor will first ask you about your family’s medical history as well as your bowel motions.
After that, a physical examination may be followed by one or more diagnostic tests.
Blood test and stool sample
Barium enema
Flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy
Capsule endoscopy