Nanotechnologies are emerging fields of study that focus on influencing matter at the atomic and molecular levels. There is no question that modern medicine would benefit enormously from it; consequently, Nano-medicine has emerged as one of the most important disciplines of Nano technological study. Its current focus is on discovering novel strategies for preventing, detecting, and treating a variety of illnesses. Nanomaterials have a great effectiveness in eliminating cancer cells and are currently being tested in clinical studies.
Use of nanotechnology in treating cancer
The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. One area of interest is the development of nanomaterials that are both efficient and well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include immunomodulatory Nano-adjuvants used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, a nearly non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already used to repair damaged tissues and may be used to regenerate nerves in the future. The purpose of this article is to discuss the possible applications of nanotechnology in medicine. Original papers and reviews have been used to present new discoveries and research directions.
Today, doctors frequently request imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs to aid in the diagnosis of cancer. However, these tests can only detect the illness once it has grown large enough to be seen. By then, the cancer may have multiplied and spread to other places of the body. These scans also cannot determine whether or not a tumor is cancerous. To be certain, a biopsy is generally required. Nanotechnology, because to its small size, can detect changes in a very small number of cells. It can distinguish between normal and malignant cells. And it can detect cancer in its early stages, when the cells have only just begun to divide and the malignancy is easier to treat. Nanotechnology has the potential to improve the visibility of malignancies on imaging tests. Coating nanoparticles with antibodies or other compounds aids in their detection and adhesion to cancer cells. Particles can also be coated with chemicals that emit a signal when they come into contact with cancer. Nanoparticles consisting of iron oxide, for example, attach to cancer cells and provide a powerful signal that illuminates the tumor on MRI images.
Examples and approved therapies
For more than a decade, doctors have employed nanotechnology to treat cancer. Abraxane and Doxil, two authorised therapies, improve the efficacy of chemotherapy medications. Abraxane is a nanoparticle comprised of the protein albumin and the chemotherapy chemical docetaxel. It inhibits the division of cancer cells. Abraxane is used to treat advanced breast and pancreatic malignancies, as well as non-small-cell lung cancer.
Nanotechnology more precisely targets cancer cells while sparing healthy organs. It should, in principle, have less negative effects than existing therapies like as chemotherapy and radiation. Weight loss, nausea, and diarrhoea are common adverse effects of current nanotechnology-based therapies such as Abraxane and Doxil. However, these issues might be caused by the chemotherapeutic medications they contain. As these medicines are studied in clinical trials, researchers need learn more about their negative effects. Hence more studies still have to conducted in order to make determine the safety of these drugs